# Picture environment

If you need to include simple diagrams or figures in your document, the **picture** environment may be helpful. This article describes circles, lines, and other graphic elements created with LaTeX.

# Introduction

Images can be "programmed" directly in your LaTeX file

```
\setlength{\unitlength}{1cm}
\thicklines
\begin{picture}(10,6)
\put(2,2.2){\line(1,0){6}}
\put(2,2.2){\circle{2}}
\put(6,2.2){\oval(4,2)[r]}
\end{picture}
```

The syntax of the **picture** is

```
\begin{picture}(width,height)(x-offset,y-offset)
```

the parameters are passed inside parentheses, `width`

and `height`

as you may expect, determine the width and the height of the picture; the units for this parameter are set by `\setlength{\unitlength}{1cm}`

. The second parameter is optional and establishes the coordinates for the lower-left corner. Below a description of other commands:

`\put(6,2.2){\oval(4,2)[r]}`

- will draw a oval centred in the point
`4,2`

. The parameter`[r]`

is optional, you can use*r*,*l*,*t*and*b*to show the right, left, top or bottom part of the oval. If absent the whole oval is drawn.

`\put(2,2.2){\circle{2}}`

- draws a circle centred at the point (2,2.2) and whose diameter is 2.

In the next section the rest of the commands are described.

Open an example the **picture** environment in Overleaf

# Combining lines, circles and text

Different basic elements can be combined for more complex pictures

```
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm}
\begin{picture}(12,4)
\thicklines
\put(8,3.3){{\footnotesize $3$-simplex}}
\put(9,3){\circle*{0.1}}
\put(8.3,2.9){$a_2$}
\put(8,1){\circle*{0.1}}
\put(7.7,0.5){$a_0$}
\put(10,1){\circle*{0.1}}
\put(9.7,0.5){$a_1$}
\put(11,1.66){\circle*{0.1}}
\put(11.1,1.5){$a_3$}
\put(9,3){\line(3,-2){2}}
\put(10,1){\line(3,2){1}}
\put(8,1){\line(1,0){2}}
\put(8,1){\line(1,2){1}}
\put(10,1){\line(-1,2){1}}
\end{picture}
```

In this example several lines and circles are combined to create a picture, then some text is added to label the points. Below each command is explained:

`\thicklines`

- This changes the
**thickness**of the lines, making them a bit thicker, you can also use`\thinlines`

which has the opposite effect.

`\put(8,3.3){{\footnotesize $3$-simplex}}`

- The
**text**"3-simplex" is inserted at the point (8,3.3), the font size is set to*footnotesize*. The same command is used to label each point.

`\put(9,3){\circle*{0.1}}`

- This draws a
**filled circle**centred at (9,3) and it's diameter is 0.1. Is so small that is used as a point.

`\put(10,1){\line(3,2){1}}`

- Draws a
**straight line**, whose start point is at (10,1), it's length is 1 and it's direction is (3,2). As you see lines with arbitrary slopes are tricky to draw, some calculations must be performed for this.

Arrows can also be used inside a **picture** environment, let's see a second example

```
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.20mm}
\begin{picture}(400,250)
\put(75,10){\line(1,0){130}}
\put(75,50){\line(1,0){130}}
\put(75,200){\line(1,0){130}}
\put(120,200){\vector(0,-1){150}}
\put(190,200){\vector(0,-1){190}}
\put(97,120){$\alpha$}
\put(170,120){$\beta$}
\put(220,195){upper state}
\put(220,45){lower state 1}
\put(220,5){lower state 2}
\end{picture}
```

The syntax for vectors the same used for `line`

`\put(120,200){\vector(0,-1){150}}`

- This renders a vector whose start point is (120,200), its length is 150 and the direction is (0,-1).

Open an example the **picture** environment in Overleaf

# Bézier curves

Bézier curves are special curves that are drawn using three parameters, one start point, one end point and a control point that determines "how curved" it is.

```
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm}
\begin{picture}(10,5)
\thicklines
\qbezier(1,1)(5,5)(9,0.5)
\put(2,1){{Bézier curve}}
\end{picture}
```

Notice that the command `\qbezier`

(quadratic Bezier curve) is not inside a `\put`

command. The parameters that must be passed are:

- A start point,
- A control point and
- An endpoint.

*Picture* is the standard tool to create figures in LaTeX, as you see this is tool is sometimes too restrictive and cumbersome to work with, but it's supported by most of the compilers and no extra packages are needed. If you need to create complex figures, for more suitable and powerful tools see the TikZ package and Pgfplots package articles.

Open an example the **picture** environment in Overleaf

# Further reading

For more information see

## Overleaf guides

- Creating a document in Overleaf
- Uploading a project
- Copying a project
- Creating a project from a template
- Using the Overleaf project menu
- Including images in Overleaf
- Exporting your work from Overleaf
- Working offline in Overleaf
- Using Track Changes in Overleaf
- Using bibliographies in Overleaf
- Sharing your work with others
- Using the History feature
- Debugging Compilation timeout errors
- How-to guides

## LaTeX Basics

- Creating your first LaTeX document
- Choosing a LaTeX Compiler
- Paragraphs and new lines
- Bold, italics and underlining
- Lists
- Errors

## Mathematics

- Mathematical expressions
- Subscripts and superscripts
- Brackets and Parentheses
- Matrices
- Fractions and Binomials
- Aligning Equations
- Operators
- Spacing in math mode
- Integrals, sums and limits
- Display style in math mode
- List of Greek letters and math symbols
- Mathematical fonts

## Figures and tables

- Inserting Images
- Tables
- Positioning Images and Tables
- Lists of Tables and Figures
- Drawing Diagrams Directly in LaTeX
- TikZ package

## References and Citations

- Bibliography management with bibtex
- Bibliography management with natbib
- Bibliography management with biblatex
- Bibtex bibliography styles
- Natbib bibliography styles
- Natbib citation styles
- Biblatex bibliography styles
- Biblatex citation styles

## Languages

- Multilingual typesetting on Overleaf using polyglossia and fontspec
- Multilingual typesetting on Overleaf using babel and fontspec
- International language support
- Quotations and quotation marks
- Arabic
- Chinese
- French
- German
- Greek
- Italian
- Japanese
- Korean
- Portuguese
- Russian
- Spanish

## Document structure

- Sections and chapters
- Table of contents
- Cross referencing sections and equations
- Indices
- Glossaries
- Nomenclatures
- Management in a large project
- Multi-file LaTeX projects
- Hyperlinks

## Formatting

- Lengths in LaTeX
- Headers and footers
- Page numbering
- Paragraph formatting
- Line breaks and blank spaces
- Text alignment
- Page size and margins
- Single sided and double sided documents
- Multiple columns
- Counters
- Code listing
- Code Highlighting with minted
- Using colours in LaTeX
- Footnotes
- Margin notes

## Fonts

## Presentations

## Commands

## Field specific

- Theorems and proofs
- Chemistry formulae
- Feynman diagrams
- Molecular orbital diagrams
- Chess notation
- Knitting patterns
- CircuiTikz package
- Pgfplots package
- Typing exams in LaTeX
- Knitr
- Attribute Value Matrices

## Class files

- Understanding packages and class files
- List of packages and class files
- Writing your own package
- Writing your own class
- Tips